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Egyptian Symbols

Egyptian Symbols - Egyptian Meanings

Egyptian symbols hieroglyphics are arguably one of the most famous examples of symbolism across history. Created by the ancient Egyptians, this served as their formal writing system. Hieroglyphics can be dated back to the 32nd century BC, and perhaps even earlier. Evidence demonstrates that this writing system continued into the Roman period of the 4th century AD. However, much of the knowledge of hieroglyphics and their meanings were lost after the end of pagan temples in the 5th century. There was no existing knowledge of what these symbols meant, how they were meant to be read and their significance.
Hieroglyphics were decoded in the 1820s with the aid of the Rosetta Stone by Egyptologist Jean-François Champollion. These symbols are not just phonetic sounds or symbols. In fact, they are a combination of different elements. As Jean-François Champollion discovered, hieroglyphics are a “complex system” that encompasses “figurative, symbolic, and phonetic all at once.” For many Egyptians, this form of writing was seen as the “words of God” and thus used by priests.
Generally, hieroglyphics in cursive form were used for religious texts and engraved into wood or written on papyrus. They are written in rows or columns and can be read either left to right or right to left. The direction can be established by seeing which way the human or animal figure faces at the beginning of the line.

Lotus Egyptian symbol

Lotus

One of the more well-known ancient Egyptian symbols. The Lotus is representative of the sun and creation. It is a depiction of the process of rebirth and new beginnings. The Lotus is also associated with the god of healing and medicine, Nefertem.

Tyet Egyptian symbol

Tyet

Some scholars describe Tyet as a variation of the Ankh symbol. Others describe this as a knotted piece of cloth. However, its meaning is very similar to the ankh. Often translated as life or welfare, and also appears with the ankh and djed symbol. Tyet is associated with Isis, which is why it is also known as the “knot” or “blood” of Isis.

Crook and fall Egyptian symbol

Crook and fall

A symbol often used by Pharaohs, the crook and fall are representative of two aspects of royalty. The crook, similar to that used by a shepherd, is a symbol of the king’s authority. The fall depicts fertility and land. This symbol is usually seen on tombs and crossed over the chest. This is to demonstrate both the ruler as a shepherd and his strength in ruling.

Menat Egyptian symbol

Menat

Menat is the name of the goddess Hathor. A major goddess, she was a deity of the sky. She is known as a patron of music, dance, love, joy, and maternal care. Menat is a representation of femininity in ancient Egyptian culture. She is also a guide in the afterlife, helping guide deceased souls across the boundaries of the two worlds.

Ha Egyptian symbol

Ha

Ha depicts a clump of papyrus. This symbol originates from Lower Egypt. Its variant is a swamp of papyrus. The green symbolizes the vitality of life.

Sedge Egyptian symbol

Sedge

The Sedge symbol is representative of the King of the South of Egypt. It is also visible in Sma hieroglyph as half of the union. It is a representation of the different regions of Egypt individually. The sedge is most often seen as part of the Sma/Sema hieroglyph.

Sema Egyptian symbol

Sema

The Sema, or Sma, is a symbol indicating a union. It depicts the lower and upper kingdoms of Egypt and their unity. It is often described as a pair of lungs attached to a windpipe, genitalia, and sometimes both simultaneously. The Sma was often placed on a mummy’s chest in order to give it life in the underworld.

Netra Egyptian symbol

Netra

In its most literal form, the Netra symbol can be seen as a weapon. The general agreement is that it depicts either an ax or a hatchet. However, Netra is also the word for God in ancient Egyptian. The symbol can be found engraved on the tombs of rulers to indicate that their soul has joined the gods.

Duat Egyptian symbol

Duat

The importance of stars is not just relegated to mortal life, but also the afterlife. Duat is the land of the underworld, and it was believed that stars were present there as well. Its symbol is meant to depict the star itself, but also its surroundings by the circle. They were also seen as a symbol of the souls dwelling in the underworld.

Seba Egyptian symbol

Seba

Seba is a representation of the star. For Egyptians, stars were how they designed their calendars. It also influenced their beliefs in the afterlife. The starfish symbol is representative of the stars they found in the Red Sea. However, while its design resembles a starfish, Seba itself is connected to religion and the afterlife.

Ka Egyptian symbol

Ka

The Ka is a representation of life and soul. It refers to the spiritual double that each person possesses. The Ka lives on even when the individual dies and needs somewhere to live. To give it somewhere to live and attain eternal life, the Ka needs to survive. Because the Ka needs a body, Egyptians mummified their dead to give its spiritual double the chance to live.

Was - Sceptre Egyptian symbol

Was – Sceptre

Was-sceptre denotes power. The was-scepter was used as a representation of power. It was associated with deities such as Anubis and pharaohs. The symbol is also a representation of chaos by the deity Set. It also has meaning in the context of death, as it was seen as a protective tool for the deceased.

Amenta Egyptian symbol

Amenta

Amenta is a symbol for the underworld. It depicts the horizon where the sun sets. It was also used as a representation of the Nile’s west bank. The latter is where Egyptians buried their dead, leading it to become a symbol for the land of the dead.

Sa Egyptian symbol

Sa

Sa symbolizes protection. The symbol is shaped to resemble a rolled-up reed mat and has a dual meaning. Sa could either be seen as a shelter for herdsmen, or a protection device for boatmen. This is also the symbol for ancient Egyptian deities Bes and Taweret.

Shu Egyptian symbol

Shu

Shu is a symbol for the god of light and air. Literally translated, Shu means emptiness. The feather is its symbol, as Shu is often depicted as a human with feathers on his head. Shu is associated with warm and dry air and the Earth’s atmosphere. A god of light, he is a representation of day and night and the separation between the two.

Shen Egyptian symbol

Shen

The Shen, on the outset, looks like a circle with a line at the bottom. However, when examined closely, it is actually a loop of rope. Both ends are visible, yet tied together. The sun disc in the middle is a representation of the eternity of life, as the sun is central to life. The Shen is derived from the word shenu, which means to encircle. The Shen is a representation of infinity and permanence. It also served as a protection device for rulers and deities.

Ieb Egyptian symbol

Ieb

Ieb is the heart and it has a special role in ancient Egypt. There was an early realization of the connection between the heart and the pulse and its importance. It was believed that the heart contained both the mind and soul of a person. It was seen as a center of life force. The heart also plays an important role in the afterlife, as a lighter heart (i.e. not burdened with sin) would enjoy the happiness of eternal afterlife.

Ahket Egyptian symbol

Ahket

If Djew is the mountain, Ahket represents the horizon. Stylistically, it is seen as the sun rising. It is also known as “the place in the sky where the sun rises.” It is also a word for one of the seasons experienced in ancient Egypt. Known as the inundation season, this is when the Nile would flood farmland and start bringing nutrients to the plants.

Djew Egyptian symbol

Djew

Djew symbol depicts the mountain ranges of Egypt. It shows its peaks, with a valley running in between. This is a representation of the cosmic beliefs ancient Egyptians held, rather than being seen as a literal mountain. Djew is an image of the two peaks of a mountain that keep the sky up. These are guarded and have their own protector, Aker.

Djed Egyptian symbol

Djed

A common symbol, Djed is a sign of stability. Its resemblance to a pillar is meant to represent permanence and eternity. Many associate this symbol with the spine of Osiris, the Egyptian god of the dead. The pillar of Djed has its roots in a myth wherein Osiris is tricked and killed, with his body thrown into a river. Eventually, Isis extracts his body and consecrates the pillar that it was used to construct, thereby giving it its title.

Wedjat Egyptian symbol

Wedjat

Wedjat eyes are a symbol of protection against the evil eye. It is a representation of the falcon god Horus. These can often be found on coffins and tombs as a way to protect the dead and ward off evil spirits. The lines underneath the eye are an association of similar markings on a falcon’s face.

Uraeus Egyptian symbol

Uraeus

Symbol of the goddess Wadjet. Uraeus depicts an upright cobra in a threatening pose. It is seen as a symbol of divine authority, royalty and was often adorned on crowns and head ornaments of ancient Egyptian rulers and gods. Uraeus is associated with deities and pharaohs, and therefore holds great significance. The cobra symbolizes Wadjet’s protection and a sign that the ruler was her chosen one and under her patronage.

Khepra Egyptian symbol

Khepra

Also known as Khepri, Khepra symbol refers to a god that is often associated with scarabs and dung beetles. He is the god of sunrise, creation, and a representation of dawn. A creator god, he plays an important role in Egyptian life and is worshiped. He is mainly associated with the rising sun. This is because ancient Egyptians connected the action of a scarab beetle rolling its dung, and Khepri rolling the sun to bring light to the Earth as similar and therefore made his symbol the scarab.

Ankh Egyptian symbol

Ankh

The Ankh is a symbol of life and is often referred to as “The Key of Life” or the “Cross of Life.” It is viewed as a symbol of the earthly journey, and a reminder of mortal existence and what comes after death. One of the more ancient and well-known symbols, the ankh is often seen on temple walls and jewelry. Many also see it as a good luck charm. However, its main association is with the afterlife.

Heh Egyptian God

Heh

Heh, Hauh, Huah, Hahuh – in Egyptian mythology – is the god of Hermopolis Ogrdoada. God Heh was an abstract deity personifying the constancy of time and the infinity of space. He was portrayed in the guise of a man with the head of a frog. He was also often depicted with a palm branch in his hand or on his head, which symbolized the long life of the Egyptians. Its hieroglyph was used in ancient Egypt as a designation for one million, which was essentially considered equivalent to infinity in Egyptian mathematics. This deity is also known as the “god of millions of years”. The wife of the god Hech was the goddess Hauchet.

Kneph Egyptian God

Kneph

Kneph, the Eternal Unmanifest God, in Egyptian mythology, is depicted as the emblem of the Serpent of Eternity, wrapping around an urn of water, with his head moving over the water, which he fertilizes with his breath. In this case, the Serpent is Agathodemon, the Spirit of Good; in his opposite aspect, he is Cacodemon, the Spirit of Evil. The Egyptian Knef or Knufis, divine wisdom, depicted in the form of a Serpent, takes out an egg from its mouth, from which Ptah the God, emerges. In this case, Ptah is a universal embryo.

Khnum Egyptian God

Khnum

God Khnum was depicted as a man with a ram’s head. He was considered the ruler of the territory of Upper Egypt, which was adjacent to the first threshold of the Nile. The island of Elephantine was located at the first threshold, and there, on the southern tip of the island, there was a temple dedicated to this god. Khnum was revered as the god of fertility, a demiurge, who blinded people, gods and their Ka (doubles) on a potter’s wheel from clay. In the old version of the myth about the creation of the world from primordial chaos, the god Khnum with the head of a ram and his wife Heket with the head of a frog were proclaimed “the first gods who were at the beginning, who built people and made gods.” The primordial creative nature of Khnum and the creative principle inherent in it began to be explained on the basis of the etymology of the root “khonen” – “to create like a potter.” So the ram-headed Khnum became the “god-potter” who once created “all creatures, from gods to animals, on his potter’s wheel and who still defines the appearance of every newborn child, clearly creating them, or at least their “double” in heaven before the birth of the child. ”

Satis Satet Egyptian God

Satis Satet

Satis Satet – deification of the Nile flood in ancient Egyptian mythology. She was depicted as a woman with antelope horns, wearing the crown of Upper Egypt, holding an ankh in her hand (due to the fact that the floods of the Nile were considered “life-giving”). She is also credited with the role of the goddess of war, protecting the southern region of ancient Egypt and killing the enemies of the pharaoh with her arrows, therefore, images of Satis with arrows are also found.

Ptah Egyptian God

Ptah

Ptah, in Egyptian mythology, is the creator god, patron of arts and crafts, especially revered in Memphis. Ptah created the first eight gods (his hypostases – Ptahs), the world and everything that exists in it (animals, plants, people, cities, temples, crafts, arts, etc.) “with a language and a heart.” Having conceived creation in his heart, he expressed his thoughts and commands in words. Sometimes Ptah was called the father of even gods such as Ra and Osiris. The wife of Ptah was the goddess of war Sekhmet, the son was Nefertem, the god of vegetation. Ptah was depicted as a mummy with an open head, with a rod or staff, standing on the hieroglyph, meaning the truth.

Neith Egyptian God

Neith

Neith was an early Egyptian deity who was said to be the first and main creator. She is said to be the creator of the universe and everything it contains, and she controls the way it functions. She was the goddess of wisdom, weaving, space, mothers, rivers, water, childbirth, hunting, war and fate. She was a warlike goddess. Neith is the goddess of war and the hunt, and her symbol was two arrows crossed over a shield. However, she is a much more complex goddess than is commonly known, and whose ancient texts only hint at her true nature. Religious silence was prescribed by the ancient Egyptians to maintain secrecy, using euphemisms and allusions and often relying only on symbols. In her usual representations, she is depicted as a ferocious deity, a woman in a Red Crown, sometimes holding or using a bow and arrow, and in others a harpoon.

Maat Egyptian God

Maat

Maat (“ostrich feather”), in Egyptian mythology, the goddess of truth, justice and harmony, the daughter of the sun god Ra, a participant in the creation of the world. She played a prominent role in the afterlife judgment of Osiris. The center of the Maat cult was in the Theban necropolis. Since the ancient Egyptians believed that each deceased had to appear before 42 judges and plead innocent or guilty of sins, the soul of the deceased was weighed on the scales, balanced by the ostrich feather of the goddess Maat. Libra was held by Anubis and the verdict was pronounced by the husband of Maat, the god Thoth. If the heart was burdened with crimes, the monster Amtu, a lion with the head of a crocodile, devoured the deceased. If the deceased lived his life “with Maat in his heart”, was pure and sinless, then he revived for a happy life in the fields of paradise. Maat was usually depicted with a feather in her hair, which she placed on the scales at the trial. It was believed that people live “thanks to Maat, in Maat and for Maat.”

Ra Egyptian Symbol

Ra

Ra Egyptian God was the main solar deity of ancient Egypt. The sun god is the source of light, energy and life. He is the creator of the cosmos and its laws. The solar cult is closely related to such concepts as health, children, courage, and the fate of the country. The name Ra (Re) is the Egyptian word for the sun, the most visible of the divine forces that created and sustained the existence of the world. It was the god Ra who established the cycles of the Egyptian year, the time and the flood of the Nile itself, thus ensuring the very possibility of successful agricultural production in the valley of the great river. The journey of a deity across the sky has many mythological variations. The Sun-Ra could fly across the sky on its wings. Therefore, the solar disk with wings is one of the most widespread and most important symbols of Ancient Egypt. This is also why he is often depicted as a man with the head of a falcon or a hawk, that is, in the guise of powerful birds that can soar high in the sky. Another equally popular option was the movement of the deity across the sky in a boat. In this case, the sky was understood as the curved giant goddess Nut (the sky), on whose body Ra floats.

Khepri Egyptian God

Khepri

Khepri Egyptian God (or Kheper), in Egyptian mythology, is the god of the rising sun, demiurge and creator of the world. The ancient deity of the sun Khepri was depicted as a huge scarab rolling the sun across the heavens (correlation of manure and the sun as a guarantee of fertility). From time immemorial, the scarab was the personification and symbol of Khepri, one of the most ancient Egyptian gods associated with the innermost mysteries of the Sun. The image of the Khepri-scarab, conveying the ideas of transformation, renewal and resurrection, is ubiquitous in ancient Egyptian religious and funerary art. Khepri was depicted mainly as a scarab beetle, although in some tombs and burial papyri he is depicted as a man with a scarab body in place of a head, or as a scarab with a human head on the shell of a beetle.

Atum Egyptian God

Atum

Atum Egyptian God in Egyptian mythology, is the deity of the dying sun, demiurge, one of the most ancient gods. In many ancient Egyptian texts, Atum is called the evening or setting sun. He was depicted as a man (often an old man) in the clothes of a pharaoh with a double red and white crown of Upper and Lower Egypt. At the end of each cycle of creation, Atum took the form of a serpent, as well as a lizard, lion, bull, monkey or ichneumon (Egyptian mongoose). His title in ancient times was “Lord of both lands”, that is, Upper and Lower Egypt. Having fertilized himself, that is, having swallowed his own seed, Atum gave birth, spitting out from his mouth, the twin gods air – Shu and moisture – Tefnut, from which the earth – Geb and the sky – Nut.

Shu Egyptian God

Shu

Shu Egyptian God (from the ancient Egyptian hieroglyph word for “empty”), in Egyptian mythology, is the god of air, separating heaven and earth, the son of the sun god Ra-Atum, husband and brother of the goddess of moisture Tefnut. He was most often depicted as a man standing on one knee with his arms raised, with which he supports the sky above the earth. God Shu is one of the judges over the dead in the afterlife.

Osiris Egyptian God

Osiris

Osiris Egyptian God, in Egyptian mythology, is the god of the productive forces of nature, the lord of the afterlife, the judge in the kingdom of the dead. Osiris was the eldest son of the earth god Heb and the sky goddess Nut, brother and husband of Isis. Osiris reigned on earth after the gods Ra, Shu and Geb and taught the Egyptians agriculture, viticulture and winemaking, mining and processing of copper and gold ore, medical arts, city building, and established the cult of the gods. Usually Osiris was depicted as a man with green skin, sitting among trees, or with a vine entwined around his figure.
It was believed that, like the entire plant world, Osiris dies annually and is reborn to a new life, but the fertilizing life force in him is preserved even in the dead.

Hathor Egyptian God

Hathor

Hathor Egyptian God (“house of Horus”, that is, “sky”), in Egyptian mythology, is the goddess of the sky, who in ancient times was revered as a cow that gave birth to the sun, the daughter of the sun god Ra. The goddess of joy and love, dances and songs, she protected mothers with children. Hathor took care of the living and escorted the dead to the underworld, where she reinforced them with food and drink from the sycamore tree, into which she reincarnated.

Isis Egyptian God

Isis

Isis Egyptian God, in Egyptian mythology, is the goddess of fertility, water and wind, a symbol of femininity and marital fidelity, goddess of navigation, daughter of Hebe and Nut, sister and wife of Osiris. Isis helped Osiris civilize Egypt and taught women to harvest, spin and weave, heal diseases, and established the institution of marriage. Isis was considered the “Eye of Ra” and was worshiped as the “Mother of Great Magic” who protected her son Horus from snakes, predators and other dangers; thus, she protected all mortal children. Isis was so popular in Egypt that over time she acquired the features of other goddesses. She was revered as the patroness of women in labor, determining the fate of newborn kings.

Horus Egyptian God

Horus

Horus Egyptian God (“height”, “sky”), in Egyptian mythology, is the god of the sky and the sun in the guise of a falcon, a man with the head of a falcon or a winged sun, the son of the goddess of fertility Isis and Osiris, the god of productive forces. His symbol is a sun disc with outstretched wings. Initially, the falcon god was revered as a predatory hunting god, clawing at prey with its claws. According to the myth, Isis conceived Horus from the dead Osiris, cunningly killed by the formidable god of the desert Set, his brother.
Having retired deep into the swampy delta of the Nile, Isis gave birth and raised a son who, having matured, in a dispute with Seth, achieves recognition of himself as the only heir of Osiris. The god Horus was considered the patron saint of the royal house, the royal dynasty and the pharaoh. In Egypt, the name Horus was included in the royal title. The living ancient Egyptian pharaoh was represented as the embodiment of the god Horus.

Sobek Egyptian God

Sobek

Sobek Egyptian God, in Egyptian mythology, is the god of water and the flood of the Nile, whose sacred animal was the crocodile. He was depicted in the form of a crocodile or in the form of a man with the head of a crocodile. It was believed that the crocodile Petsuhos was kept in the lake adjacent to the main sanctuary of Sobek in Fayyum, as a living embodiment of God. The admirers of Sobek, who were looking for his protection, drank water from the lake and fed the crocodile with delicacies. It is believed that the ancients perceived Sobek as the main deity, giving fertility and abundance, as well as the protector of people and gods.

Khonsu Egyptian God

Khonsu

Khonsu Egyptian God (“passing”), in Egyptian mythology, is the god of the moon, the god of time and its dimensions, the son of Amun and the goddess of the sky Mut. Khonsu was also revered as the god of travel. As the patron saint of medicine, Khonsu approached the god of wisdom Thoth, who was a member of the Theban triad of deities. In the images of Khonsu that have come down to us, we most often see a young man with a sickle and a moon disk on his head, sometimes he appears in the guise of a child god with a finger at his mouth and a “curl of youth” that boys wore on the side of their heads until adulthood. Khonsu was also depicted as a falcon with a moon disk on his head.

Thots Egyptian God

Thots

Thots Egyptian God or Djehuty, in Egyptian mythology, is the god of the moon, wisdom, counting and writing, the patron of sciences, scribes, sacred books, the creator of the calendar. The wife of Thoth was considered the goddess of truth and order, Maat. The sacred animals of Thoth were the ibis and the baboon, and therefore the god was often depicted as a man with the head of an ibis, sometimes with papyrus and a writing instrument in his hands. The Egyptians associated the arrival of the ibis-Thoth with the seasonal floods of the Nile. He, identified with the moon, was considered the heart of the god Ra and was depicted behind the Ra-sun, since he was his night substitute. Thoth was credited with creating the entire intellectual life of Egypt. “Lord of time”, he divided it into years, months, days and kept track of them. The wise Thoth wrote down the birthdays and deaths of people, kept chronicles, and also created writing and taught the Egyptians to count, write, mathematics, medicine and other sciences.

Nephthys Egyptian God

Nephthys

Nephthys Egyptian God ( “mistress of the house”) or Nebetkhet, in Egyptian mythology, is the youngest of the children of Geb and Nut. She was portrayed as a woman with a hieroglyph of her name on her head. She was considered the wife of the god Set, but, judging by the surviving texts, she has very little to do with him. Actually, the essence of the goddess Nephthys in Egyptian religious literature is almost not revealed. Nephthys was Isis’ twin. Nephthys and Isis are identified with falcons, therefore they are often depicted as winged women.
The lack of an independent role for Nephthys gives the impression of an artificially invented goddess serving as a couple for the demonic god Set.

Anubis Egyptian God

Anubis

Anubis Egyptian god, in Egyptian mythology, is the god and patron of the dead, the son of the vegetation god Osiris and Nephthys, the sister of Isis.
The newborn Anubis Nephthys hid from her husband Seth in the swamps of the Nile Delta. The mother goddess Isis found the young god and raised him. Later, when Set killed Osiris, Anubis, organizing the burial of the deceased god, wrapped his body in fabrics impregnated with a special composition, thus making the first mummy.
Therefore, Anubis is considered the creator of funeral rites, the patron saint of necropolises, and is called the god of embalming. Anubis also helped to judge the dead and accompanied the righteous to the throne of Osiris. Anubis was depicted in the form of a wolf, jackal or a wild black dog Sub (or a man with the head of a jackal or dog).

Tefnut Egyptian God

Tefnut

Tefnut Egyptian God, in Egyptian mythology, is the god of moisture, dew, rain and fertility. Her earthly incarnation was a lioness. Tefnut and her husband Shu are the first pair of twin gods born of Ra-Atum. Their children are the gods Geb and Nut. Tefnut is the beloved Eye of the god Ra. When in the morning he ascended over the horizon, Tefnut shone with a fiery eye in his forehead and incinerated the enemies of God.

Nut Egyptian God

Nut

Nut Egyptian God, in Egyptian mythology, is the goddess of the sky, the daughter of the god of air Shy and the goddess of moisture Tefnut, the twin sister of the god of earth Geb. In the most ancient ideas of the Egyptians, Nut was a heavenly cow that gave birth to the sun and all the gods. As the protector and patroness of the dead, raising them to heaven, the goddess was often depicted on sarcophagi. Against the will of Ra, Nut married her brother. Ra became so angry that he ordered Shu to separate the twins. Shu lifted Nut up – this is how the sky was formed, and Geb was left below – this is how the earth was formed. Nut was called “a huge mother of stars, giving birth to gods.” She is the mother of Osiris, Seti, Isis, Nephthys and Horus.

Bastet Egyptian God

Bastet

Bastet Egyptian God or Bast, in Egyptian mythology, is the goddess of joy and fun, whose sacred animal was a cat. Most often, Bast was depicted as a woman with a cat’s head or in the guise of a cat. The sacred attribute of the goddess was a stringed musical instrument called the sistrum. Sometimes Bast was considered the wife of the creator god Ptah or identified with the goddess of the sky Mut, as well as with the goddesses Uto, Tefnut, Sekhmet and Hathor, highly respected in Egypt, in connection with which Bast also acquired the functions of the solar Eye.

Set Egyptian God

Set

Set Egyptian God, in Egyptian mythology, is the god of the desert, that is, “foreign countries”, the personification of the evil principle, brother and killer of Osiris, one of the four children of the earth god Geb and Nut, the goddess of the sky. In Egyptian myth-making, the god Set is depicted as the first to shed blood, and his own brother Osiris became a victim. However, Set was not always an evil god. In the Old Kingdom (3150-2613 BC) Set was the most beloved deity of the ancient Egyptians. In the era of the Old Kingdom, Set was revered as a warrior god, assistant to Ra and patron of the pharaohs. The sacred animals of Set were considered to be a pig (“disgust for the gods”), an antelope, a giraffe, and the main one was a donkey. The Egyptians imagined him as a man with a slender long body and a donkey’s head. As the personification of war, drought, death, Set also embodied the evil inclination – as the deity of the merciless desert, the god of strangers: he chopped down sacred trees, ate the sacred cat of the goddess Bast, etc.

Anuket Egyptian God

Anuket

Anuket is an ancient Egyptian goddess who was originally worshiped as the goddess of the Nile in Upper Egypt and the surrounding Nubian lands. Later she acquired a common Egyptian cult as the patron goddess of the first threshold of the Nile, Aswan and the island of Elephantine. In addition, she was also considered one of the patrons of the Nile floods, which provided the opportunity for agriculture in Egypt.
Since the potter-god Khnum and his wife Satis were considered the gods of the origins of the Nile, Anuket in the Egyptian tradition was considered as their daughter, born from the merger of the White and Blue Nile in Dongol. Anuket was associated with the speed of the river in the area of ​​the first threshold and, therefore, with fast arrows and a fast gazelle. Therefore, Anuket was portrayed as a gazelle-women wearing a crown of feathers or reeds.

Min Egyptian God

Min

Min in Egyptian mythology is the god of rain, fertility, producer of crops, male potency, master of all women. Min – an ithyphallic deity, is depicted with a vertically erect penis, the head of which is open, as if preparing for copulation with the universe through his hand. Min was portrayed as a bearded man with closed legs and a headdress (the same as Amon’s). Min’s right hand is turned up, a whip in the shape of the Orion constellation is embedded in it, the left hand is usually not depicted on Egyptian frescoes, but on statues it clasps the phallus at the base, completely pulling the flesh from the head of the penis, which as a result looks like a cut off. Around the forehead it is usually tied and a red ribbon descends vertically from the back, which almost reaches the very ground. Min was the patron saint of human and livestock reproduction. It was believed that it was he who endows men with sexual strength, the power to give birth to a son. The sacred animal of Min was the white bull, which was also the image of abundant seed and fertility. Another symbol was the long lettuce, which in Egypt was considered an aphrodisiac and which men ate in the hope of making themselves more masculine.

Geb Egyptian God

Geb

Geb, in Egyptian mythology, is the god of the earth, the son of the god of air Shu and the goddess of moisture Tefnut. Geb quarreled with his sister and wife Nut (“heaven”), because she ate her children’s heavenly bodies every day, and then gave birth to them again. Shu separated the spouses. He left Geb below, and raised Nut up. The children of Nut and Geb were Osiris, Set, Isis, Nephthys. The soul (Ba) Geb was embodied in the god of fertility Khnum. The ancients believed that Geb is kind: he protects the living and the dead from snakes living in the earth, the plants that people need grow on him, which is why he was sometimes depicted with a green face. Geb was associated with the underworld of the dead, and his title “prince of princes” gave him the right to be considered the ruler of Egypt.

Amunet Egyptian God

Amunet

Amunet is one of the original goddesses of the ancient Egyptian religion. This charming goddess plays a central role in the Egyptian creation myth. But later she was replaced by another goddess. Her nickname includes the names “Hidden” and “Invisible”. According to her name, there is very little reliable information about this mysterious deity. It is considered the female assistant of Amun. In myths, Amunet is associated with invisible elements such as Air and Wind.

Amun Egyptian God

Amun

Amun (“hidden”), in Egyptian mythology, is the sun god. The sacred animal of Amun is the ram and the goose (both are symbols of wisdom). Amun was depicted as a man (sometimes with a ram’s head), with a scepter and in a crown, with two high feathers and a sun disk. The cult of Amun originated in Thebes and then spread throughout Egypt. Amun’s wife, the sky goddess Mut, and his son, the moon god Khonsu, were with him the Theban triad. Later, Amun acquired the status of the beloved and especially revered god of the pharaohs, and during the Eighteenth Dynasty of the ancient Egyptian rulers he was declared the head of the Egyptian gods. Amun-Ra granted victories to the Pharaoh and was considered his father. Amun is the creator god of everything, the lord of the world, all gods, people and objects exist in him invisibly, the ruling Pharaoh is the son of Amun from his marriage with the queen-mother.

Heqet Hauchet Egyptian God

Heqet Hauchet

Heqet Hauchet is the ancient Egyptian goddess of fertility, moisture and rain. Her sacred animal was a water-loving frog. Based on her specialization, Heqet was portrayed as a frog, as a woman with a frog on her head, or as a woman with a frog’s head. Although the goddess was known throughout Egypt, she was still revered mainly in the South (Upper Egypt). Heqet was responsible not only for the yield of the fields, but also associated with childbirth (helped women in labor), she also contributed to the resurrection of the dead (her images were often placed on sarcophagi).

Serket Egyptian God

Serket

Serket – in ancient Egyptian mythology, is the scorpion-shaped patron goddess of the dead, the daughter of Ra, who helps him defeat enemies.
This is one of the oldest goddesses, whose cult was known even in the predynastic period. The story of the great warrior Menes, known as the King of Scorpions, is associated with the image of Serket. Under the auspices of the Scorpion Goddess, Menes won many wars and became her loyal priest. The name “Serket” is derived from the expression “serket hetit” – “giving breath to the throat”.

Montu Egyptian God

Montu

Montu, in Egyptian mythology, is the god of war. The sacred animal of Montu was the falcon. Depicted as a man with a falcon’s head, crowned with a crown with two blue feathers and a sun disc. One of the main attributes of Montu was the spear. It was believed that Montu would grant the Pharaoh victory over his enemies. In the Pyramid Texts, Montu Falcon lifts the deceased king to heaven.

Nefertem Egyptian God

Nefertem

Nefertem – in Egyptian mythology, is the god of vegetation, the son of Sekhmet (destruction and restoration) and Ptah (construction). The name Nefertem means “lovely child of the gods.” More often he was depicted as a baby on a lotus flower or as a youth with a lotus flower on his head. Lotus (the emblem of Upper Egypt) personified beauty, prosperity, birth and resurrection after death.

Sekhmet Egyptian God

Sekhmet

Sekhmet or Sokhmet (mighty), in Egyptian mythology, is the goddess of war and the scorching sun, daughter of Ra, wife of Ptah, mother of the vegetation god Nefertem. The sacred animal Sekhmet is a lioness. The goddess was portrayed as a woman with the head of a lioness and was revered throughout Egypt. In the myth of how Ra punished the human race for sins, she exterminated people until God stopped her by cunning. Her sight terrified the enemy, and the fiery breath destroyed everything, Sekhmet could kill a person or let him get sick; the anger of the goddess brought pestilence and epidemics. At the same time, Sekhmet is a healer goddess who patronized doctors who were considered her priests.

Nekhbet Egyptian God

Nekhbet

Nekhbet or Nehebt, in Egyptian mythology, is the goddess of royal power. Nekhbet was the guardian of the royal family. It symbolized the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt into a single state. The image of Nekhbet goes back to the ancient ideas of the Egyptians about the sky as the wings of a kite. Since the sacred animal of the goddess Nekhbet was a kite, she was depicted as a woman with a crest on her head or as a snake-headed kite in the white crown of Upper Egypt.

Ammit Egyptian God

Ammit

Ammit or Amtu (“eater of the dead”, “devourer of death”), in ancient Egyptian mythology, a monster with the body of a hippopotamus, the head of a crocodile (sometimes a dog), front paws and a lion’s mane, hippopotamus hind legs. Ammit lived in Duat in a lake of fire and devoured sinners who did not pass the trial of Osiris. She ate the heart of a man if the great Ennead pronounced him a guilty verdict at the afterlife trial of Osiris in Amenti. In the tombs of the pharaohs, Ammit was portrayed not so much as a monster devouring the dead, but as a guardian and protector.

Iusaaset Egyptian God

Iusaaset

Iusaaset was called the hand of the god Atum. Some researchers believe that Iusaaset was the wife of Atum, the progenitor of the gods. The sacred tree of this goddess was acacia (“tree of life and death”). Iusaaset was identified with the goddess Hathor. The goddess Iusaaset was identified with the acacia, which was considered the tree of life and one of the oldest trees on earth.

Nun Egyptian Symbols

Nun

Nun (from the ancient Egyptian word for “water”), in Egyptian mythology, is the embodiment of the water element, which existed at the dawn of time and contained life force. In the image of Nun, the concept of water as a river, sea, rain, etc. is merged. Nun and his wife Naunet, personifying the sky on which the sun floats at night, were the first pair of gods, all the gods originated from them: Atum, Hapi, Khnum, as well as Khepri and others. Nun is an image of the primordial universal ocean that existed at the beginning of the creation of the world, in the ideas of the Egyptians going back to real natural phenomena – the floods of the majestic Nile.

Mut Egyptian God

Mut

Mut is one of the most important goddesses of Egyptian mythology, is the queen of heaven of the Theban triad (wife of Amun and mother Khonsu; adoptive mother of the god of war Montu), patroness of motherhood, “mother of mothers”. Mut is, first of all, the role of the divine mother, comparable to the roles of Isis and Hathor. The reigning pharaoh was often considered her son. Therefore, there are many images, especially in the form of amulets, which show the goddess breastfeeding her son, the Pharaoh. The oldest images of the goddess date back to around 1700 BC. e. On them, Mut appears in the form of a woman with the head of a lioness, crowned with a solar disk and ureus. Instead of holding a traditional wand in her hands, she can hold a palm branch or a palm tree branch. It is in this form that Mut appears before us on a slightly later bas-relief of the temple in Luxor.

Seshat Egyptian God

Seshat

Seshat (feminine from “sesh”, “scribe”) is the goddess of writing in Egyptian mythology. She was considered the daughter or sister (less often the wife) of the god of wisdom Thoth. The panther was considered the sacred animal of Seshat, so the goddess was represented in the skin of this animal, thrown over a shirt. A seven-pointed star was depicted above the head. The goddess was revered as the head of the “house of life”, that is, a collection of manuscripts, an archive. One of her functions is to write on the leaves of the shed tree (her fetish) the years of the life and reign of the pharaoh. In addition, she was in charge of the art of counting (trophies of war, prisoners, gifts, tribute), as well as drawing up construction plans, and patronized construction work.

Apophis Egyptian God

Apophis

Apophis, in Egyptian mythology, a gigantic serpent, personifying darkness and evil, the eternal enemy of the sun god Ra. Apophis lived in the depths of the earth, where his struggle with Ra took place. Every night Apophis lay in wait for Ra, sailing in a solar boat along the underground Nile, and drank all the water from the river. In the nightly battle with Apophis, Ra always came out victorious and made the monster vomit water back.

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